Let’s first begin by defining CBD. CBD means Cannabidiol, which is a compound found in marijuana. CBD can be derived from hemp or from non-hemp plants. Hemp is defined as any part of the cannabis sativa plant with no more than 0.3% of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the mind-altering substance found in marijuana plants.
CBD oil is pretty accessible to most in the form of lotions and oils, foods, and even cosmetics. In 2018, the U.S. Congress passed and signed into law the Agriculture Improvement Act. This law removed hemp from the federal Controlled Substances Act, effectively legalizing CBD if it comes from hemp. However, a few states have not removed hemp from their state’s controlled substances acts, so legality of CBD products differs across states. Scientists are still learning about how CBD affects the body. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Epidiolex, a medicine that contains purified CBD from hemp, to help treat rare seizure disorders. A prescription form of CBD is used for seizure disorder (epilepsy). CBD is also used for anxiety, pain, a muscle disorder called dystonia, Parkinson disease, Crohn disease, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.
Using CBD products is not risk free. The FDA has limited data on CBD safety. Please consider these possible side effects and risks before using CBD:
- Liver damage
- Interference with other drugs you are taking, which may lead to injury or serious side effects
- Drowsiness or sleepiness
- Diarrhea or changes in appetite
- Changes in mood, such as irritability
Using CBD during pregnancy is not recommended. The potential health effects of using CBD products during pregnancy are currently unknown. In animals, high doses of CBD have caused negative effects on developing fetuses. We do not know if CBD is passed to a baby through breast milk. Since negative effects have been associated with CBD use, people who are breastfeeding are encouraged to avoid CBD.
What body system is CBD and Copaiba Essential Oil trying to access, and why?
The Endocannabinoid System or ECS helps the body regulate stress and anxiety. The ECS is a signaling and regulating system comprised of enzymes, receptor sites throughout the body, and endocannabinoids produced by the body. With cannabinoid receptors found widely in the body and all major organs, the ECS acts as a major regulator of human health. The CB2 receptors in this system are of particular importance because they are mostly found within the immune system. When Copaiba is consumed, the BCP binds to these receptors to aid healthy immune and inflammatory responses. It also influences multiple signaling pathways to promote healthy liver, digestive, kidney, heart, and brain function.
Powerfully relaxing, Copaiba oil comes from the resin of four tropical trees native to Brazil. Copaiba oil is a powerful anti-oxidant and can help soothe anxious feelings, help with the cardiovascular, nervous, digestive, immune, and respiratory systems. Using natural plant products in traditional health has been a practice for centuries. Mother Nature has provided some of the most diverse, complex compounds still used today to promote wellness and address a variety of concerns.
Taken internally, Copaiba essential oil supports the health of the cardiovascular, immune, digestive, and nervous systems. It also helps support a healthy inflammatory response. Copaiba essential oil can be added directly to the mouth to cleanse and soothe the gums and oral cavity. The main component, β-caryophyllene, may be neuroprotective and may have cardiovascular and immune benefits when consumed. Copaiba oil contains the highest levels of β-caryophyllene (BCP) among currently known essential oils.
What is Beta-Caryophyllene?
The Terpene Beta-Caryophyllene is present in black pepper, oregano, basil, and many other herbs and spices. Beta-Caryophyllene molecular structure is unique and a natural constituent of many essential oils. Caryophyllene is notable for having a cyclo-butane ring, a rarity in nature.
CB1 and CB2 receptors are essential in the vast network of receptors in the endocannabinoid system. CB1 receptors are principally located in the brain and central nervous system, while CB2 receptors are found mainly in our peripheral organs. Beta-Caryophyllene easily attaches to CB2, meaning it doesn’t cause the euphoric feelings. As mentioned earlier, its relationship with the endocannabinoid system and its ability to bind to CB2 receptors gives it excellent potential to provide medicinal benefits.
BCP selectively binds to CB2 receptors in the endocannabinoid system (ECS)
The ECS is a signaling and regulating system comprised of enzymes, receptor sites throughout the body, and endocannabinoids produced by the body. With cannabinoid receptors found widely in the body and all major organs, the ECS acts as a major regulator of human health. The CB2 receptors in this system are of particular importance because they are mostly found within the immune system. When Copaiba is consumed, the BCP binds to these receptors to aid healthy immune and inflammatory responses. It also influences multiple signaling pathways to promote healthy liver, digestive, kidney, heart, and brain function.
- Add one to two drops to water, juice, or tea to support the health of the cardiovascular, immune, digestive, nervous, and respiratory system.
- Provides antioxidant support when ingested.
- Take internally to help soothe and calm the nervous system.
- Apply topically combined with a carrier oil or a facial moisturizer to help keep skin clean and clear, and to help reduce the appearance of blemishes.
- Swish with two drops of Copaiba Oil and one drop of peppermint oil to freshen the breath and promote oral cleanliness.
- Apply two to three drops and cover with Deep Blue rub to soothe sore, tired muscles after strenuous activity.
- Mix equal amounts of Copaiba Oil and Fractionated Coconut oil and apply to restore stressed skin.
- Place one to two drops of Copaiba under the tongue to encourage a general sense of well-being during periods of stress or nervousness.
- Diffuse three drops each of Copaiba and Breathe blend to support healthy respiratory function.
- Diffuse two drops each of Copaiba, Vetiver, Lavender, and Wild Orange or Serenity blend to promote restful sleep at night.
The endocannabinoid system – what is it exactly?
The endocannabinoid (EC) system helps the body manage anxiety, inflammation, and other physiological responses to different forms of stress. During strenuous exercise, stress, and other related stimuli, the body produces compounds called endocannabinoids. Endocannabinoids (ECs) are signaling molecules that trigger the activation of the EC system when they are detected by cannabinoid receptors.
Cannabinoid receptors (CRs) not only detect the presence of ECs, but they are also affected by molecules from outside sources that chemically resemble endocannabinoids. The term cannabinoid refers to any compound, produced by the body or from an outside source, that triggers the EC system by activating CRs. Anandamide is an EC compound produced in the body. Anandamide activates two types of CRs, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2).
A “runner’s high” is a perfect example of the EC system at work. After a long period of strenuous exercise, the body begins to produce anandamide in order to activate CRs and turn on the EC system. The “runner’s high” has two components: slight euphoria, and soothing of the discomfort in the muscles and joints. These two outcomes are linked with two distinct structures: the CB1 and CB2 receptors. CB1 receptors are mainly found in the brain and central nervous system, and are linked with pleasure and reward pathways. CB1 receptor activation leads to feelings of euphoria. CB2 receptors are found in the rest of the body, like the muscles, skin, and vital organs. They are mainly found on the surface of white blood cells, and their activation affects the regulation of inflammation chemicals called cytokines.
THC & CBD
THC is the main psychoactive compound in marijuana. According to GC/MS analyses conducted by doTERRA’s analytical chemists, it is found in high concentrations in many brands of cannabis oil, and it can also be found in hemp and CBD oil in more than just trace amounts. THC is known to activate both CB1 and CB2 receptors. It is generally accepted as a potent drug with powerful psychoactive properties.
CBD, another compound found in high quantities in marijuana, CBD oil, and hemp oil, does in fact interact directly with CB1 and CB2, but the interaction is so weak as to be negligible.2 CBD actually exerts its effects on the EC system by a different mechanism than most cannabinoids.
Research shows that CBD acts on the enzyme FAAH, which breaks down anandamide. CBD actually slows down the enzyme’s activity, which leads to increased levels of anandamide in the body.1 The reason why this is significant is because anandamide interacts with CB1 and CB2 receptors. Higher levels of anandamide would result in increased feelings of euphoria due to increased activation of CB1 receptors, as well as soothing of the tissues due to activation of CB2.
CBD, by increasing levels of anandamide, has similar pharmacological effects as THC in that it affects the same two cannabinoid receptors, however the magnitude of the effect is much smaller compared with THC. CBD is generally considered non-hallucinogenic.
Soothing the tissues without triggering any sort of psychoactive response can be accomplished by using a compound with selective interaction with the CB2 receptor. Beta-caryophyllene (BCP) is a sesquiterpene compound found in hundreds of different plant species, and it has recently been recognized for its unique ability to interact with CB2 but not CB1 receptors.3 Thus the alleged benefits of CBD or THC can be obtained without the psychoactive effects by using a product containing BCP. dōTERRA’s new Copaiba essential oil has the highest BCP content of any oil, around 55% as confirmed by GC/MS analysis of dōTERRA’s own Copaiba oil.
There is ample evidence pointing to the benefits of oral supplementation of beta-caryophyllene, but like CBD and hemp oil, further research in the form of human clinical trials is required. More promising are the low doses at which some of these studies have been conducted. These dosages suggest that as little as 1-2 drops of Copaiba oil or 3-4 drops of Black Pepper oil may provide noticeable results in humans. At this time, the systemic soothing properties of beta-caryophyllene have potential benefit as treatment for a wide range of health issues.* Still unexplored are the effects of CB2 receptor activation on human diseases for which there are few experimental models—such as learning disabilities and autism spectrum disorders—that many claim can benefit from using cannabis.
To summarize, there are many ways to modulate the body’s cannabinoid system. Products containing CBD, THC, and BCP all affect the endocannabinoid system. We acknowledge that health care professionals may recommend different products containing different kinds of cannabinoid compounds for different health issues. However, at doTERRA we believe that BCP-containing products are the most effective for healthy individuals seeking a product that they can use for self-care.